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Monday, February 11, 2002

Amar, Akhil Reed, "The Bill of Rights and the 14th Amendment," Yale Law Journal, 101 (1992): 1193, 1205-1211, 1261-1262.

_____, "The Bill of Rights as a Constitution," Yale Law Journal, 100 (1990): 1131-1164.

_____, and Alan Hirsch, For the People: What the Constitution Really Says About Your Rights, New York, N.Y., The Free Press, 1998.

Blackman, Paul H., "Civil Liberties and Gun-Law Enforcement: Some Implications of Expanding the Powers of Police to Enforce a `Liberal` Victimless Crime," an unpublished paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1984.

_____, "Carrying Handguns for Personal Protection: Issues of Research and Public Policy," an unpublished paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, San Diego, Calif., 1985.

_____, "Criminology`s Astrology: An Evaluation of Public Health Research on Firearms and Violence," an unpublished paper delivered at the annual meeting of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, Denver, 1990.

_____, "The Law and Practice of Self-Protection: The People and Bernie Goetz vs. the Media Elite," an unpublished paper delivered at the annual meeting of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, San Francisco, 1988.

_____, and Richard E. Gardiner, "The NRA and Criminal Justice Policy: The Effectiveness of the National Rifle Association as a Public Interest Group," an unpublished paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Atlanta,1986.

Bordenet, Bernard J., "The Right to Possess Arms: The Intent of the Framers of the Second Amendment, University of West Los Angeles Law Review, 21 (1990).

Bordua, David J., "Adversary Polling and the Construction of Social Meaning: Implications in Gun Control Elections in Massachusetts and California," Law & Policy Quarterly, 5 (1983): 345-366.

Bruce-Briggs, Barry, "The Great American Gun War," Public Interest, No. 45 (1976): 37-62.

Burnett, H. Sterling, "Suing Gun Manufacturers: Hazardous to Our Health," Texas Review of Law & Politics, Spring 2001: 433-494.

Cantrell, Charles L., "The Right of the Individual to Bear Arms," Wisconsin Bar Bulletin, 53 (Oct. 1980): 21.

Caplan, David I., "Restoring the Balance: Second Amendment Revisited," Fordham Urban Law Journal, 5 (1976): 31-53.

_____, "Handgun Control: Constitutional or Unconstitutional?," North Carolina Central Law Journal, 5 (1976): 53-58.

_____, "The Right of the Individual to Bear Arms: A Recent Judicial Trend," Detroit College of Law Review, (1982): 789-823.

Comment, "The Right to Keep and Bear Arms: A Necessary Constitutional Guarantee or an Outmoded Provision of the Bill of Rights?," Albany Law Review, 31 (1967): 74.

Cottrol, Robert J., Raymond T. Diamond, "The Fifth Auxiliary Right," Yale Law Journal, 104 (1995): 995.

_____, "The Second Amendment: Toward an Afro-Americanist Reconsideration," Georgetown Law Journal, 80 (1991): 309.

_____, ed., Gun Control and the Constitution: Sources and Explorations on the Second Amendment, New York, Garland Publishing, Inc., 1994.

Cramer, Clayton E., For the Defense of Themselves and the State: The Original Intent and Judicial Interpretation of the Right to Keep and Bear Arms, Wesport, Conn., Praeger Press, 1994.

_____, "The Racist Roots of Gun Control," Kansas Journal of Law & Public Policy, Winter 1995: 17-25.

_____, and David B. Kopel, "`Shall Issue:` The New Wave of Concealed Handgun Permit Laws," Tennessee Law Review , 62 (1995): 679.

Denning, Brannon P., "Can the Simple Cite Be Trusted?: Lower Court Interpretations of United States v. Miller and the Second Amendment," Cumberland Law Review, 26 (1996): 961-1004.

Dowlut, Robert, "The Right to Keep and Bear Arms: A Right to Self-Defense Against Criminals and Despots," Standford Law & Policy Review, 8 (1997): 25-40.

_____, "The Right to Arms: Does the Constitution or the Predilection of Judges Reign?," Oklahoma Law Review , 36 (1983): 65-105.

_____, "Federal and State Constitutional Guarantees To Arms," University of Dayton Law Review , 15 (1989): 91.

_____, "The Current Relevancy of Keeping and Bearing Arms," University of Baltimore Law Forum , 15 (1984): 29-32.

_____, and Janet Knoop, "State Constitutions and the Right to Keep and Bear Arms," Oklahoma City University Law Review, 36 (1982): 177-241.

Funk, T. Markus, "Gun Control and Economic Discrimination: The Melting-Point Case-in-Point," Northwestern University Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 85 (1995): 764-806.

Fussner, Smith, Essay Review, Constitutional Commentary, 3 (1986): 582.

Gardiner, Richard E., "To Preserve Liberty--A Look at the Right to Keep and Bear Arms," Northern Kentucky Law Review, 10 (1981): 63-96.

Gifford, Dan, "The Conceptual Foundations of Anglo-American Jurisprudence in Religion and Reason," Tennessee Law Review, 62(1995): 759.

Gottlieb, Alan, "Gun Ownership: A Constitutional Right," Northern Kentucky Law Review, 10, (1982): 138.

Halbrook, Stephen P., "The Right of Workers to Assemble and to Bear Arms: Presser v. Illinois, One of the Last Holdouts Against Application of the Bill of Rights to the States, University of Detroit Mercy, 76, (1999): 943-989.

_____, Freedmen: The 14th Amendment and the Right to Keep and Bear Arms, 1776-1866, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing (1998).

_____, "Restoring the Tenth Amendment: Printz v. United States," Commentaries on Law & Public Policy: 1997 Yearbook, South Orange, N.J., Dumont Institute for Public Policy Research, (1999): 48-73.

_____, "Second-Class Citizenship and the Second Amendment in the District of Columbia," George Mason University Civil Rights Law Journal, 5 (1995): 601.

_____, "Personal Security, Personal Liberty, and `The Constitutional Right to Bear Arms`: Visions of the Framers of the Fourteenth Amendment," Seton Hall Constitutional Law Journal, 5 (1995): 341-434.

_____, "Congress Interprets the Second Amendment: Declarations by a Co-Equal Branch on the Individual Right to Keep and Bear Arms," Tennessee Law Review, 62 (1995): 597.

_____, "Rationing Firearms Purchases and the Right to Keep Arms: Reflections on the Bills of Rights of Virginia, West Virginia, and the United States," West Virginia Law Review, 96 (1993): 1-83.

_____, "The Right of the People or the Power of the State: Bearing Arms, Arming Militias, and the Second Amendment," Valparaiso Law Review, 26 (1991): 131-207.

_____, "The Right to Keep and Bear Arms in Texas: The Intent of the Framers of the Bill of Rights," Baylor Law Review, 41 (1989): 629-688.

_____, A Right to Bear Arms: State and Federal Bills of Rights and Constitutional Guarantees, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press (1989).

_____, "Encroachment of the Crown on the Liberty of the Subject: Pre-Revolutionary Origins of the Second Amendment," University of Dayton Law Review, 15 (1989): 91.

_____, "What the Framers Intended: A Linguistic Analysis of the Right to `Bear Arms,`" Law & Contemporary Problems, 49 (1986): 151.

_____, "The Right to Bear Arms in the First State Bills of Rights: Pennsylvania, North Carolina, Vermont and Massachusetts," Vermont Law Review, 10 (1985): 255-320.

_____, That Every Man Be Armed--The Evolution of a Constitutional Right, Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1984.

_____, "Tort Liability for the Manufacture, Sale, and Ownership of Handguns?," Hamline Law Review, 6 (1983): 351-382.

_____, "To Keep and Bear Their Private Arms: The Adoption of the Second Amendment 1789-1791," Northern Kentucky Law Review, 10 (1982): 13-39.

_____, "The Jurisprudence of the Second and Fourteenth Amendments," George Mason University Law Review, 4 (1981): 63-96.

_____, and David B. Kopel, "Tench Coxe and the Right to Keep and Bear Arms, 1787-1823," William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal, 7 (1999): 347-399.

Hardy, David T., "Firearms Ownership and Regulation: Tackling an Old Problem With Renewed Vigor," William and Mary Law Review, 20 (1978): 235-290.

_____, "Legal Restrictions of Firearms Ownership as an Answer to Violent Crime: What Was the Question?," Hamline Law Review, 6 (1983): 391-408.

_____, "Armed Citizens, Citizen Armies: Toward a Jurisprudence of the Second Amendment," Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, (1986): 559-638.

_____, Origin and Development of the Second Amendment, Southport, Conn.: Blacksmith Corporation, 1986.

_____, "The Second Amendment and the Historiography of the Bill of Rights," Journal of Law & Politics, 4 (1987): 1.

_____, and John Stompoly, "Of Arms and the Law,"Chicago-Kent Law Review, 51 (1974): 62-114.

Harmer, David, "Securing a Free State: Why the Second Amendment Matters," Brigham Young University Law Review, 1 (1998): 55-101.

Hayes, Stuart R., "The Right to Keep and Bear Arms, A Study in Judicial Misinterpretation," William and Mary Law Review, 2 (1960): 381.

Johnson, Nicholas J., "Beyond the Second Amendment: An Individual Right to Arms Viewed Through the Ninth Amendment," Rutgers Law Journal, 24 (1992): 1-81.

_____, "Shots Across No Man`s Land: A Response to Handgun Control, Inc.`s Richard Aborn, Fordham Urban Law Journal, 22 (1995): 441-451.

Kates, Don B., Jr., ed., "Firearms and Firearms Regulation: Old Premises, New Research," (a symposium), Law & Policy Quarterly, 5 (1983).

_____, "Handgun Prohibition and Original Meaning of the Second Amendment," Michigan Law Review, 82 (1983): 204.

_____, ed., Restricting Handguns: The Liberal Skeptics Speak Out, Croton-on-Hudson, N.Y.: North River Press, 1979.

_____, ed., Firearms and Violence: Issues of Public Policy, Pacific Studies in Public Policy, Cambridge: Ballinger, 1984.

_____, special ed., "Gun Control" (a symposium), Law and Contemporary Problems, 49 (1986): 1-267.

_____, Guns, Murders, and the Constitution: A Realistic Assessment of Gun Control, Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy, 1990.

_____, "The Second Amendment and the Ideology of Self-protection," Constitutional Commentary, 9 (1992): 87.

_____, et al., "Guns and Public Health: Epidemic of Violence, or Pandemic of Propaganda?," Tennessee Law Journal, 62 (1995): 513.

_____, et al., "Sick of Guns: The Centers for Disease Control`s Campaign Against Gun Ownership," Reason, April 1997, 24-29.

_____, and Randy E. Barnett, "Under Fire: The New Consensus on the Second Amendment," Emory Law Journal, 45 (1996).

_____, and Gary Kleck, The Great American Gun Debate: Essays on Firearms and Violence, San Francisco, Calif., Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy, 1997.

Kleck, Gary, "Guns and Violence: An Interpretive Review of the Field," Social Pathology, 1 (1995): 12-47.

_____, David J. Bordua and Chester L. Britt, "A Reassessment of the D.C. Gun Law: Some Cautionary Notes on the Use of Interrupted Time Series Designs for Policy Impact Assessment," Law & Society Review, 30 (1996): 361-380.,

_____, and Marc Gertz, "Armed Resistance to Crime: The Prevalence and Nature of Self-Defense with a Gun," Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 86 (1995): 150.

_____, Targeting Guns: Firearms and Their Control, Hawthorne, N.Y.: Aldine de Gruyter, 1997.

_____, Point Blank: Guns and Violence in America, Hawthorne, N.Y.: Aldine de Gruyter, 1991.

_____, and Britt Patterson, "The Impact of Gun Control and Gun Ownership Levels on City Violence Rates," unpublished paper delivered at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Reno, 1989.

_____,"Crime Control Through the Private Use of Armed Force," Social Problems, 35 (1988): 1-21.

_____, and David Bordua, "The Factual Foundation for Certain Key Assumptions of Gun Control," Law & Policy Quarterly, 5 (1983): 271-293.

_____, "Policy Lessons from Recent Gun Control Research," Law & Contemporary Problems, 49 (1986): 35-62.

Kobayashi, H. Brauce and Joseph E. Olson, "In Re 101 California Street: A Legal and Economic Analysis of Strict Laibility for the Manufacture and Sale of `Assault Weapons,`" Standford Law & Policy Review, 8 (1997): 41-62.

Kopel, David B., "The Supreme Court`s Thirty-Five Other Gun Cases: What The Supreme Court Has Said About The Second Amendment," Saint Louis University Public Law Review, 1999: 99-187.

_____"The Second Amendment in the Nineteenth Century," Brigham Young University Law Review, 1998: 1359-1548.

_____, "The Untold Triumph of Concealed-Carry Permits," Policy Review, 78 (1996): 9-11.

_____, "Peril of Protection? The Risks and Benefits of Handgun Prohibition" Saint Louis University Public Law Review, 12 (1993): 285-359.

_____, Trust the People: The Case Against Gun Control, Cato Institute Policy Report, 1988.

_____, The Samurai, the Mountie, and the Cowboy: Should America Adopt the Gun Controls of Other Democracies?, Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1992.

_____, ed., Guns: Who Should Have Them?, Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1995

_____, and Christopher C. Little, "Communitarians, Neorepublicans, and Guns: Assessing The Case for Firearms Prohibition," Maryland Law Review, 56 (1997): 438-554.

_____,and Joseph E. Olson, "All The Way Down The Slippery Slope: Gun Prohibition in England and Some Lessons for Civil Liberties in America," Hamline Law Review, 22 (1999): 399-465.

Kukla, Robert, Gun Control, Harrisburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 1973.

LaPierre, Wayne, Guns, Crime, and Freedom, Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing, 1994.

Larish, Inge Anna, "Why Annie Can`t Get Her Gun: A Feminist Perspective on the Second Amendment," University of Illinios Law Review, 2 (1996): 467-508.

Leonardatos, Cynthia, and Paul H. Blackman and David B. Kopel, "Smart Guns/Foolish Legislators: Finding the Right Public Safety Laws, and Avoiding the Wrong Ones," Connecticut Law Review, 34 (2001): 157.

Levine, Ronald B., and David B. Saxe, "The Second Amendment: The Right to Bear Arms, Houston Law Review, 7 (1969).

Levinson, Sanford, "The Embarrassing Second Amendment," Yale Law Journal, 99 (1989): 637.

Lizotte, Alan J., David J. Bordua, and Carolyn S. White, "Firearms Ownership for Sport and Protection: Two Not So Divergent Models," American Sociological Review, 46 (1981): 499-503.

Lott, John R., Jr., More Guns, Less Crime: Understanding Crime and Gun Control Laws, Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1998.

_____and David B. Mustard, "Crime, Deterrence, and Right-to-Carry Concealed Handguns," The Journal of Legal Studies, 26 (1997): 1-68.

Lund, Nelson, "The Second Amendment, Political Liberty, and the Right to Self-Preservation," Alabama Law Review, 39 (1987): 103.

Malcolm, Joyce Lee, "The Right of the People to Keep and Bear Arms: The Common Law Tradition," Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly, 10 (1983): 285-314.

_____, To Keep and Bear Arms: The Origins of an Anglo-American Right, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1994.

_____, Disarmed: The Loss of the Right to Bear Arms in Restoration England, The Mary Ingraham Bunting Institute of Radcliffe College, 1980.

_____, Essay Review, George Washington University Law Review, 54 (1986): 582.

McAffee, Thomas B. and Michael J. Quinlan, "Bringing Forward the Right to Keep and Bear Arms: Do Text, History, or Precedent Stand in the Way?" North Carlina Law Review, 75 (1997)

McClure, James A., "Firearms and Federalism," Idaho Law Review, 7 (1970): 197.

Moncure, Thomas, "Who is the Militia--The Virginia Ratification Convention and the Right to Bear Arms," Lincoln Law Review, 19 (1990): 1.

Morgan, Eric C., "Assault Rifle Legislation: Unwise and Unconstitutional," American Journal of Criminal Law, 17 (1990): 143.

Murray, Douglas R., "Handguns, Gun Control Laws and Firearms Violence," Social Problems, 23 (1975): 81-93.

Polsby, Daniel D., "Second Reading: Treating the Second Amendment as Normal Constitutional Law," Reason, March ,1996, 32-36.

_____,"The False Promise of Gun Control," Atlantic Monthly, 273 (1994): 57.

_____, "Firearms Costs, Firearms Benefits and the Limits of Knowledge," Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 86 (1995): 207.

Reynolds, Glenn Harlan, "The Right to Keep and Bear Arms Under the Tennessee Constitution: A Case Study in Civic Republican Thought," Tennessee Law Review, 61 (1994): 647.

_____, "A Critical Guide to the Second Amendment," Tennessee Law Review, 62 (1995): 443.

Santarelli, Donald F., and Nicholas Calio, "Turning the Gun on Tort Law," St. Mary`s Law Review, 14 (1983): 471-508.

Sayles, Susan, and Gary Kleck, "Rape and Resistance," an unpublished paper delivered at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Chicago, 1988.

Scarry, Elaine, "War and the Social Contract: The Right to Keep and Bear Arms," Pennsylvania Law Review, 139, (1991): 1257.

Shalhope, Robert E., "The Ideological Origins of the Second Amendment," The Journal of American History, 69 (1982): 559-614.

_____, "The Armed Citizen in the Early Republic," Law & Contemporary Problems, 49 (1986): 125.

Snyder, Jeffrey R., "A Nation of Cowards," The Public Interest, 113 (1993): 40-55.

Sprecher, Robert A., "The Lost Amendment," American Bar Association, 51 (1965): 554 & 665 (2 parts).

Tahmassebi, Stefan B., "Gun Control and Racism," George Mason Civil Rights Law Journal, 2 (1991): 67.

Tonso, William R., Guns and Society: The Social and Existential Roots of the American Attachment to Firearms, Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, Inc., 1982.

U.S. Congress, Senate, Committee on the Judiciary Subcommittee on the Constitution, The Right to Keep and Bear Arms, 97th Cong., 2d sess., 1982.

Van Alstyne, William, "The Second Amendment and the Personal Right to Arms," Duke Law Journal, 43 (1994): 1236-1255.

Volokh, Eugene, "The Commonplace Second Amendment," New York University Law Review, 73 (1998):

_____, "The Amazing Vanishing Second Amendment," New York University Law Review, 73 (1998):

Weiss, Jonathan A., "A Reply to Advocates of Gun Control Law," Journal of Urban Law, 52 (1974): 577-589.

Wheeler, Samuel C.. III, "Arms as Insurance," Public Affairs Quarterly, 13 (1999); 111-129.

Whisker, James B., The Citizen Soldier and United States Military Policy, Croton-on-Hudson, NY: North River Press, 1979.

_____, Our Vanishing Freedom: The Right to Keep and Bear Arms, McLean, Va.: Heritage House, 1972.

_____, "Historical Development and Subsequent Erosion of the Right to Keep and Bear Arms," West Virginia Law Review, 78 (1976): 171-190.

Williams, David C., "Civic Republicanism and the Citizen Militia: The Terrifying Second Amendment," Yale Law Journal, 101 (1991): 551.

Wright, James D., et al., Under the Gun: Weapons, Crime and Violence in America, New York: Aldine Publishing Co., 1983.

_____, "Second Thoughts About Gun Control," Public Interest, No. 91 (1988): 23-39.

_____, "Ten Essential Observations on Guns in America," Society, March-April, 1995, 62-67.

_____, and Peter H. Rossi, Armed and Considered Dangerous: A Survey of Felons and Their Firearms, New York: Aldine De Gruyter, 1986.

Young, David E., ed., The Origin of the Second Amendment: A Documentary History of the Bill of Rights, 1787-1792, Ontonagon, Mich.: Golden Oak Books, 1995.

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NRA ILA

Established in 1975, the Institute for Legislative Action (ILA) is the "lobbying" arm of the National Rifle Association of America. ILA is responsible for preserving the right of all law-abiding individuals in the legislative, political, and legal arenas, to purchase, possess and use firearms for legitimate purposes as guaranteed by the Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.